Primeras Civilizaciones

MESOPOTAMIA

Ubicación Geográfica:

Las primeras grandes ciudades se ubicaron entre los ríos Tigris y Éufrates, en la actual Irak. Al oriente de la fértil medialuna.




Resúmen Histórico

La civilización sumeria empezó a desarrollarse alrededor del cuarto milenio a.C., en las tierras ubicadas entre los ríos Tigris y Éufrates, alcanzando un alto grado de desarrollo urbano y comercial. Cada ciudad se organizó como un Estado teocrático pues era gobernada por los dioses tutelares, a través de sus sacerdotes.


Los sumerios fueron los primeros en desarrollar un sistema de escritura y contabilidad. Uno de los escritos más conocidos es el Código de Hamurabi, quien gobernó entre los años 1790 y 1750 a.C. Esta civilización fue dominada por distintos pueblos. Los hititas, pueblo de origen semita, invadieron Mesopotamia estableciéndose al norte de Sumer. Allí, cerca del año 2350. Sargón I fundó la ciudad de Acad. Posteriormente, dominaron a los sumerios, pero la superioridad cultural de estos últimos terminó por imponerse, traspasándoles su lengua y sus costumbres. Se produjeron nuevas invasiones de pueblos semitas, de las que resultó la fundación de la ciudad de Babilonia por los Acadios. Aproximadamente el 1700 a. C. Hamurabi, rey de esta urbe, logró establecer su dominio sobre gran parte del territorio; una segunda oleada invasora se produjo hacia el 2000 a. C., cuando varios pueblos indoeuropeos arribaron a la zona. Al mezclarse con los habitantes de ella, surgió un nuevo grupo, los hititas, quienes lograron establecer su control sobre la región. Otro pueblo, los asirios, ubicados al norte de Babilonia, también se impusieron. El más conocido de sus gobernantes fue Asurbanipal, quien fomentó el desarrollo de las artes y de las letras.

Principales Aportes

Escritura cuneiforme, primer conjunto de leyes y decretos (código de Hammurabi), desarrollo del sistema sexagesimal (grados, minutos y segundos), desarrollo matemático en potencias, raíces y geometría, desarrollo de la astronomía (distinguen 5 planetas), de la arquitectura (Zigurat). Además gran parte de su literatura y su tradición mitológica dan nacimiento a las religiones monoteístas posteriores.




EGIPTO

Ubicación Geográfica

La civilización egipcia se desarrolló alrededor del río Nilo en casi tosa su extensión, al noreste de África. En su extensión se pueden distinguir dos regiones: al Alto Egipto al sur y el Bajo Egipto al norte.




Resúmen Histórico

El surgimiento de la civilización egipcia se inicia alrededor del cuarto milenio antes de Cristo, alcanzando un alto grado de desarrollo que aún es visible en las pirámides y otras construcciones de gran envergadura. Inicialmente, el territorio fue ocupado por diversas tribus que paulatinamente fueron conformando dos reinos que, por su ubicación, han sido llamados el “Bajo” y el “Alto” Egipto . Sólo alrededor del 3000 a. C. Ambos reinos se unieron bajo el dominio del rey Menes, quien estableció una capital en Menfis.

Tradicionalmente se distinguen los siguientes períodos en la historia antigua de Egipto:

Unificación

Desde el 3000 al 2700 a. C.

Reino Antiguo

Desde el 2700 al 2200 a. C. Se desarrolla una gran actividad comercial e industrial y se construyen las grandes pirámides (Keops, Kefrén y Micerinos). A pesar de este esplendor, se produjeron movimientos de rebelión hasta que, finalmente, el 2050 a. C. lograron imponerse los príncipes de la ciudad de Tebas.

Reino Medio

Desde el 2050 al 1750 a.C. Tebas se transforma en la capital y se construyen obras públicas como el sistema de regadío de la región de Fayum, lo que permitió que esta zona se incorporara a la producción agrícola. Nuevos desórdenes debilitaron el poder imperial y esto facilitó que el país fuese dominado por los hicsos, los que solo fueron expulsados tras unos 100 años.

Reino Nuevo

Desde el 1580 al 1085 a. C. Etapa del mayor poderío de Egipto. Los faraones conquistaron las regiones vecinas de Palestina, Siria y Fenicia. Egipto se enriqueció y sus ciudades alcanzaron su máximo desarrollo. Sin embargo, hacia el año 1100 a. C., nuevamente aparecieron las conmociones internas, lo que facilitó la conquista por parte de los asirios y luego de los persas.



Organización y Sociedad

La sociedad egipcia era una sociedad jerarquizada: dinastía real (rectora de las actividades de país); clero (culto religioso, prestigio social y económico); escribas (hombres instruidos, funciones administrativas); oficiales (ejército y flota); soldados (extranjeros y mercenarios); artesanos (estrato bajo, precarias condiciones de vida); campesinos (grupo más numeroso, estaban adscritos a la tierra); esclavos (propiedad del faraón).

Al faraón se le considera una divinidad, dotado de fuerzas mágicas. Para asegurar la continuidad del sistema político se establece una monarquía hereditaria. El faraón goza de un poder absoluto sobre sus súbditos: sumo sacerdote, legislador, jefe de la administración, comandante de las fuerzas armadas y regulador de la economía del país, pero su primer deber son las obligaciones religiosas.

Religión

Adoraban todo aquello que les parecía extraordinario en la naturaleza, especialmente al sol (Ra). El río Nilo también fue adorado como un dios. Creyeron en la existencia de una vida más allá de la muerte (momificación).


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